Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality <p>This journal is published in collaboration with the German Society for Quality Research on Plant Foods and the Section Applied Botany of the German Botanical Society. It focuses on applied research in plant physiology and plant ecology, plant biotechnology, plant breeding and cultivation, phytomedicine, plant nutrition, plant stress and resistance, plant microbiology, plant analysis (including -omics techniques), and plant food chemistry.</p> en-US <p>From Volume 86 (2013) on, the content of the journal is licensed under the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License</a>. Any user is free to share and adapt (remix, transform, build upon) the content as long as the original publication is attributed (authors, title, year, journal, issue, pages) and the new work is licensed under a CC-BY-SA compatible license.</p> <p>The copyright of the published work remains with the authors. If you want to use published content beyond what the CC-BY-SA license permits, please contact the corresponding author, whose contact information can be found on the last page of the respective article. In case you want to reproduce content from older issues (before CC BY-SA applied), please contact the&nbsp;corresponding author to ask for permission.</p> (Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality) (Heike Riegler) Wed, 28 Feb 2018 11:16:15 +0100 OJS 60 Analysis of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf and petiole <p>Two cultivars of sweet potatoes, Pumpkin and Chestnut, were planted in the didactic field of the Faculty of Horticulture, Craiova, and biochemical determinations were carried out from the blades and petioles of the leaves. This study highlights the antioxidant properties of these species, which are not well known in Romania, to encourage consumption of the vegetative parts of the plant, as well as use of the leaves in the future to develop natural antioxidants. The chlorophyll and carotene content in the blade and petiole were determined, highlighting the large amounts of petiole, depending on the cultivar. Catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), and vitamin C content, as well as total dry matter (TDM), reducing sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity, were also measured. The petioles exhibited high antioxidant activity, with 62.186 μmol TE/g FW in Pumpkin and 95.168 μmol TE/g FW in Chestnut. The cultivars also exhibited differences at the blade level, with high values recorded for the Chestnut cultivar. Positive correlations between total polyphenols and reducing sugars (r = 0.89), antioxidant activity and reducing sugars (r = 0.48), and antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds (r = 0.53) were found. This study demonstrates that sweet potato leaves are a potential, inexpensive and beneficial source of natural antioxidants.</p> Maria Dinu, Rodica Soare, Cristina Babeanu, Gheorghita Hoza Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s) Tue, 29 May 2018 13:35:50 +0200 A novel estimation method of total flavonoids in an edible medicinal mulberry leaves by ultrasound-assisted hydroalcohol-acid extraction and HPLC-DAD <p>Mulberry leaves have been widely used to produce various health products. In this paper, an efficient procedure of ultrasound-assisted hydroalcohol-acid extraction (UAHAE) was established to estimate the total flavonoids content in mulberry leaves by quantifying their resulting aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) using HPLC-DAD. Effective hydrolysis of glycosides to aglycones was achieved in an ethanol-HCl-water (7/2/1, v/v/v) solution at 75°C by ultrasound (40 kHz) for 60 min. The average contents of quercetin and kaempferol were 7.12 mg/g and 2.13 mg/g, respectively, in the variety of cultivar MC308, and their recoveries were 105.48% and 105.81%, respectively. The total flavonoid content of most varieties was between 4-10 mg/g, accounting for 80% in 86 species of mulberry leaves. With the increase in leaf maturity, the general trend of the change in flavonoid content was a decrease at first and then an increase. The highest total flavonoid content in commercial mulberry tea (CT 2) is 4.76 mg/g, and the DPPH radical scavenging activities were similar to the distribution of total flavonoids measured by UAHAE in three types of mulberry tea. These finding provide a basis for industrial-scale manufacturing of edible medicinal mulberry leaf products.</p> Jin-Ge Zhao, Yu-Qing Zhang Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s) Wed, 16 May 2018 14:22:04 +0200 Effect of hydrogen sulfide on surface pitting and related with cell wall metabolism in sweet cherry during cold storage <p>This study was to determine whether postharvest H<sub>2</sub>S fumigation effects surface pitting development of ‘Lapins’ and ‘Regina’ cherries after cold storage, and if so, how H<sub>2</sub>S takes participate in minimizing pitting injury and its relation to cell wall metabolism. Fruit were exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) gas released from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS at rates of 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 mM), then stored at 0 °C for 4 weeks. Fruit treated with 1 and 2 mM NaHS in both cultivars had the significantly higher firmness and lower respiration rate than the control fruit. However, no treatment retarded the losses in soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). After 4 weeks of storage, H<sub>2</sub>S suppressed stem browning, decay, and surface pitting, but it did not affect the weight loss. The greater positive effect of H<sub>2</sub>S for reducing surface pitting development was due to the lower yields of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and CDTA-soluble polysaccharides (CSP) and the inhibited activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PL), and β-D-galactosidase (β-GAL). Overall, results demonstrated that H<sub>2</sub>S applied as postharvest vapor is an effective tool to control surface pitting development in sweet cherry with protected cell wall structure and reduction of cell wall metabolism.</p> Yu Dong, Huanhuan Zhi Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s) Wed, 02 May 2018 15:12:43 +0200 The study of palm and rapeseed oil stability during frying <p>Palm oil is characterized by high oxidation stability, high smoke point, low foam making properties, limited penetration into the product, what makes it ideal for processes requiring thermal treatment such as frying. The aim of the study was to investigate the chemical composition and thermooxidative stability of red palm olein, rapeseed oil and their mixtures during deep-frying of French fries. Analysis of fatty acids composition and basic parameters of fresh oils (acid number, peroxide value, polar compounds content, induction time) were performed. During frying, changes in acid number, polar compounds in oils as well as consumers’ acceptance of the fries fried in these oils were investigated. During the 32-hour of frying, the lowest chemical changes occurred in palm olein, what was confirmed by low acid values (0.99 mg KOH/g) and low polar content (14.4%). At the end of the experiment, the oil mixture had the highest polar fraction value of 25.0%. In the opinion of consumers, fries fried in rapeseed oil were “the best”, while French fries fried on palm oil were considered “artificial”, “chemical” and “disgusting”. The reason for this opinion was the addition of β-carotene to this oil. On the other hand β-carotene from palm olein had a great positive effect on the colour of the fries, but at the same time had a negative effect on the taste.</p> Magdalena Maszewska, Anna Florowska, Katarzyna Matysiak, Katarzyna Marciniak-Łukasiak, Elżbieta Dłużewska Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s) Wed, 02 May 2018 14:30:25 +0200 Seasonal and yearly variation of total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and ellagic acid in different clones of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) <p>Cloudberry (<em>Rubus chamaemorus</em> L.) is a wild perennial shrub growing on peatland with a circumpolar distribution. The combined berries have a high polyphenol content comprised primarily of ellagitannins. A few commercial cultivars are available, and pre-breeding trials on clonal material from different geographical origins are in progress. The objective of this study was to investigate how the content of polyphenols of four different cloudberry cultivars were affected by harvesting time and climatic variations during a 3-year-period. Plants were grown outside in plots and berries were harvested when mature. Berries were analyzed for total polyphenols and total anthocyanins by spectrophotometer. Total ellagic acid was identified and quantified using HPLC-MS after hydrolysis of the extracts. Results showed that all measured parameters; total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and ellagic acid are strongly influenced by the genetic background. Although low anthocyanin contents were present in all genotypes, they were highly affected by climatic conditions, being highest at low temperatures. However, the content of ellagic acid was less affected by environmental conditions and showed little response to changing temperatures. In conclusion, ellagitannin content was the most dominating polyphenol group observed in this study and was affected by genetics and is therefore a good breeding criterion for increased health benefit of cloudberry.</p> Anne Linn Hykkerud, Eivind Uleberg, Espen Hansen, Merieke Vervoort, Jørgen Mølmann, Inger Martinussen Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s) Wed, 02 May 2018 14:27:16 +0200